Wednesday, 27 July 2016

Unprecedented Alzheimer’s drug slows disease by 80 per cent

A drug that targets tau tangles in the brain has produced strong results in a large clinical trial, slowing the progression of the disease in hundreds of people via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..

Supervised self-monitoring improves diabetes control

Previous research has shown that unsupervised self-monitoring has no impact

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Trial of robotic surgery successful for prostate cancer

Robotic surgery achieves similar outcomes to open surgery at three months

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Clinical negligence claims against hospitals almost double in a year

NHS faces compensation time bomb, Medical Defence Union warns

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Placental syndromes increase women's short-term risk for cardiovascular diseases

Cardiovascular disease risk is even higher when placental syndromes are combined with poor pregnancy outcomes

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Timing of menopause linked to risk of type 2 diabetes

Early or late menopause can increase risk of type 2 diabetes

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Bedroom battleground

In our series of letters from African journalists, Ghanaian writer Elizabeth Ohene considers a dilemma over possible malaria prevention. via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

Tuesday, 26 July 2016

How have Dolly the Sheep's 'siblings' fared?

The prospect of using cloning to treat humans has been boosted by new evidence suggests that it can be used safely in animals. via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

WHO and Ministry of Health expand cholera response to minimize future risk

In an effort to stop the spread of cholera in South Sudan, the Ministry of Health, with support from WHO and partners, is ramping up disease surveillance, treatment and prevention efforts. Conflict is threatening the health of thousands of people and 271 cholera cases have been reported, including 14 deaths. via WHO news Read More Here..

Cannabinoids Hold Promise for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition and the most common form of dementia worldwide, accounting for around 70% of dementia cases. Deposition of the amyloid-beta (A-beta) peptide in the form of amyloid plaques is one of the hallmarks of the disease, occurring early in the development of this condition. As disease progresses, degenerative changes accumulate, leading to neuronal death, oxidative damage, and neuroinflammation.

The exact pathological mechanisms that drive Alzheimer’s disease remain to be clarified and are the subject of extensive research (and debate). With the goal of further elucidating some of the processes that drive Alzheimer’s progression, new research published in the Nature Partner Journal Aging and Mechanisms of Disease studied the association between A-beta accumulation and the development of neuroinflammation, as well as possible therapeutic interventions. Their results were promising.

Does A-beta accumulation cause inflammation?

Neuroinflammation is a characteristic of the aging process and is one of the main causes of cognitive impairment. In the context of neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory responses are further increased and contribute to the accelerated rate of cognitive decline that is observed. The increased inflammatory response found in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients has been mostly regarded as a consequence of the activation of glial cells in the brain.

This study, carried out in vitro, indicates that this may not be so: it establishes a direct link between A-beta and inflammation, demonstrating that A-beta production in cultured human central nervous system neurons leads to the synthesis of a number of proinflammatory molecules and to the activation of inflammatory pathways. Most of the proinflammatory molecules known to be excessively produced in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients were shown to also be overproduced in neurons after the induction of A-beta production.

Furthermore, these results suggest that A-beta production in neurons may induce inflammation even before it starts accumulating and forming amyloid plaques in the brain.

Are NSAIDs a bad choice for Alzheimer’s patients?

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to delay clinical features of Alzheimer’s disease, but clinical trials have never supported that idea. NSAIDs act by inhibiting a family of enzymes called cyclooxygenases (COX), which are responsible for the production of prostaglandins. Since prostaglandins can induce inflammatory responses, the inhibition of COX by NSAIDs results in decreased inflammation. Since COX-2 is known to be increased in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients, in theory, blocking the action of COX-2 using NSAIDs should be beneficial.

But the regulation of inflammation is not the only function of prostaglandins, which actually depends on the receptors they activate. As it turns out, according to this study, the prostaglandins PGE2 and PGD2 are actually neuroprotective, similarly to what has been found in ischemic stroke and in other neurodegeneration models. The increase in COX-2 production may therefore be a defense mechanism that neurons set in motion. By inhibiting this defense system, NSAIDs may actually promote further cellular damage.

This work showed that the detrimental action of A-beta can be mediated by the action of molecules produced by another enzyme called 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). These molecules, called leukotrienes, seem to be the ones that potentiate A-beta’s toxicity. It was shown that the inhibition of 5-LOX was able to prevent cell death, therefore holding better therapeutic potential than NSAIDs.

Cannabinoids effectively block A-beta toxicity

Interestingly, both prostaglandins and leukotrienes derive from the same molecule: arachidonic acid. And arachidonic acid is also a component of a family of endogenous cannabinoids produced in the brain.

Cannabinoids had already been studied in the context of Alzheimer’s disease, having been shown that they can reduce A-beta accumulation and improve memory. Not only endogenous cannabinoids, but also tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of cannabis, are also known to be able to reduce inflammation.

Therefore, this study also investigated whether cannabinoids could have therapeutic potential for Alzheimer’s disease. It was shown that an endocannabinoid called arachidonoyl ethanol amide (AEA), as well as synthetic analogs to this molecule, could promote neuronal survival and block A-beta accumulation. The inhibition of the enzyme that degrades AEA was also shown to be protective.

THC was also tested in this study and the results were very promising: THC had a marked protective effect, being able to remove intraneuronal A-beta, to dramatically reduce the elevated production of damaging leukotrienes, and to block neuronal cell death.

The results of this study show that cannabinoids may indeed hold promise for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. It remains to be determined if similar effects will also be obtained in vivo.


Bayer, . (2010). Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta – a predictor for synaptic dysfunction and neuron loss in Alzheimer’s disease Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2010.00008

Burstein, S., & Zurier, R. (2009). Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids, and Related Analogs in Inflammation The AAPS Journal, 11 (1), 109-119 DOI: 10.1208/s12248-009-9084-5

Campbell, V., & Gowran, A. (2009). Alzheimer’s disease; taking the edge off with cannabinoids? British Journal of Pharmacology, 152 (5), 655-662 DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707446

Currais, A., Quehenberger, O., M Armando, A., Daugherty, D., Maher, P., & Schubert, D. (2016). Amyloid proteotoxicity initiates an inflammatory response blocked by cannabinoids npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2 DOI: 10.1038/npjamd.2016.12

Kim, E., Kwon, K., Park, J., Lee, S., Moon, C., & Baik, E. (2002). Neuroprotective effects of prostaglandin E2 or cAMP against microglial and neuronal free radical mediated toxicity associated with inflammation Journal of Neuroscience Research, 70 (1), 97-107 DOI: 10.1002/jnr.10373

Martín-Moreno, A., Brera, B., Spuch, C., Carro, E., García-García, L., Delgado, M., Pozo, M., Innamorato, N., Cuadrado, A., & de Ceballos, M. (2012). Prolonged oral cannabinoid administration prevents neuroinflammation, lowers ?-amyloid levels and improves cognitive performance in Tg APP 2576 mice Journal of Neuroinflammation, 9 (1) DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-8

Valera, E., Dargusch, R., Maher, P., & Schubert, D. (2013). Modulation of 5-Lipoxygenase in Proteotoxicity and Alzheimer’s Disease Journal of Neuroscience, 33 (25), 10512-10525 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5183-12.2013

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Even a Little Exercise May Help Younger Women's Hearts

Those active about 2.5 hours a week had 25 percent lower disease risk than those who weren't, study found

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Source: HealthDay via Exercise and Physical Fitness New Links: MedlinePlus RSS Feed Read More Here..

Saved premature baby Sophie Proud returns to ward as student nurse

Sophie Proud starts her placement as a student nurse at the ward which saved her life when she was born prematurely. via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

Binge watching TV programmes could kill you, according to Japanese scientists

Japanese scientists say watching TV for hours can raise the risk of you dying from a blood clot. via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

Stem cell match for 'one in nine million' toddler Joey Ziadi

A toddler with a "one in almost nine million" blood disorder finds a matching stem cell donor after a two-year search. via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

I was there at Ebola’s bloody beginning

Forty years ago, Peter Piot raced to the scene of an outbreak of an unknown deadly disease. What he discovered gave him his life's purpose via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..

Government urged to save jobs of over 33,000 EU nurses

Nurse leaders call on ministers to safeguard the future of EU staff working in the UK

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People in the UK 11cm taller than in 1914

World’s largest ever height survey shows Dutch men and Latvian women are tallest

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Fertility facts: How late can you leave it to have a baby?

You want kids, just not yet. So here’s how to work out when to start trying – and whether you should take a fertility test via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..

The British egg industry explains why runny eggs are now safe to eat

Mark Williams, chief executive of the British egg industry council, tells Radio 4's Today programme they are "absolutely delighted" via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

Brains develop complex thought processes during teenage years

Scientists uncover links between teenage brain development and mental illness

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Spain registers first Zika microcephaly birth in Europe

Mother thought to have caught the virus on trip to Latin America

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Raw eggs ‘safe for pregnant women’

Eggs can also be served raw or lightly cooked to vulnerable groups

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Scans reveal how teenage brain develops

The areas of the brain involved in complex thought are the ones that change the most during the teenage years, research shows. via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

Dutch men confirmed as world's tallest

When it comes to height, Dutch men and Latvian women tower over all other nationalities, a new study reveals. via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

Raw eggs 'safe for pregnant women'

Pregnant women should no longer be told not to eat raw or lightly cooked eggs, a food safety committee recommends. via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

US and UK fall behind in largest ever global study of height

While English-speaking countries have high rates of obesity, their citizens are nowhere near as tall as the average heights of the Netherlands and Latvia via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..

Monday, 25 July 2016

Spain registers first Zika microcephaly birth in Europe

A woman with the Zika virus gives birth in Spain to a baby with microcephaly, said to be the first such birth registered in Europe. via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

Zika epidemic could burn out in 3 years but return in a decade

Herd immunity could drive the Zika epidemic in South and Central America to an end, but some 93 million people could be infected before then via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..


Any drive to remove 'ghost patients' is primarily about saving money; money that currently goes to Primary Care

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'Walking Meetings' May Boost Employee Health, Productivity

They increase on-the-job activity levels for white-collar workers, study found

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We took his-and-hers fertility tests – this is what it was like

Should couples curious to know the implications of postponing parenthood take a fertility test? Jessica Hamzelou and her boyfriend tried one to find out via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..

Anti-malaria drug could help fight tumours

Atovaquone proves effective in wide range of cancers

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MPs call for renewed action on discharge delays

Record levels of patients fit for discharge but stuck in hospital

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Alcohol linked to at least seven cancers – not just liver cancer

The more alcohol you drink, the higher your risk of cancers like breast and colon cancer. But research suggests that there is no "safe" level of consumption via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..

Experts criticise arthritis patient referral delays

Just a fifth of patients are referred by GPs quickly enough

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Week-long waiting times to see a GP could rise sharply

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Sunday, 24 July 2016

Nurturing The Brain – Part 10, Ketogenic Diets

Fasting has been used as a form of therapy for epilepsy throughout the history of medicine. But in 1921, Dr Woodyatt at Rush Medical College in Chicago observed that that there were a couple of ketone molecules that appeared in the blood of subjects undergoing starvation or low-carbohydrate/high-fat content diets, while Dr Wilder at the Mayo Clinic proposed that similar effects to those of fasting on epilepsy could be obtained by inducing the production of those same molecules through diet.

This was the origin of ketogenic diets, which became one of the most widely used treatments for epilepsy in children. It is still used to this day as an alternative to pharmacological treatments, although it is not known how it works.

The ketogenic diet is characterized by a continued intake of low amounts of carbohydrates, high doses of fat, and regular amounts of protein. This changes our body’s metabolism by turning fat into our main fuel: Instead of obtaining energy primarily from carbohydrates, our body obtains energy from stored fat and becomes more efficient at using fat as the main energy source. Although the intake of fat is higher, the net result is loss of stored fat.

Ketogenic low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets have been shown to be highly effective in promoting weight loss. They are called ketogenic because they lead to the production of molecules known as ketone bodies.

Ketone bodies, our brain’s other fuel

Glucose is our body’s primary source of energy. When regular amounts of carbohydrates are ingested, our carbohydrate stores keep being replenished and glucose keeps being used as fuel. But when blood glucose levels drop and carbohydrate stores are exhausted, fats stored in adipose tissue are broken down and free fatty acids are released into the blood.

Fatty acids are then taken up by cells to be used to produce energy. This happens, for example, during periods of carbohydrate restriction, fasting or starvation, or prolonged intense exercise.

However, fatty acids cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore cannot be used by neurons and glia in the central nervous system. However, the liver can use acetyl-CoA obtained from fatty acid metabolism to produce ketone bodies – acetone, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Ketone bodies are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and can be used as a replacement for glucose in the brain.

One of the reasons why ketogenic diets are often more effective than low-fat diets in promoting weight loss is the fact that ketone bodies may actually suppress appetite by acting on the hypothalamus, where signals from appetite-regulating hormones such as leptin or ghrelin are combined, by interacting with these hormonal signals.

Ketone bodies and brain health

The effects of ketogenic diets are not limited to seizure prevention. Ketogenic diets have shown beneficial effects and are being studied as therapeutic options for an impressively high range of neurological disorders: cognitive impairment, migraine, pain, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, sleep disorders, autism, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, for example.

This effect may be due to a neuroprotective action of ketone bodies. Although the mechanisms are poorly understood, studies in animal and cellular models have shown that ketone bodies can protect neuronal and glial cells against different types of cellular injury and even death. It is believed that this effect may be due to increased energy production and energy storage, since ketone bodies are actually more effective energy sources for neurons. This may arm neurons with an improved ability to resist metabolic insults.

Importantly, ketone bodies can have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidation and inflammation are the main motors of aging and of a number of pathologies, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. By reducing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, ketogenic diets can delay aging and delay or even decrease the development of many of the diseases mentioned above.

Furthermore, ketogenic diets are effective routes to weight loss, as already mentioned; since obesity has been associated with – for example, accelerated cognitive decline and increased risk of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke – weight loss by itself can bring great benefits to brain health.

Another important therapeutic action of ketogenic diets may be an anti-cancer effect. Cancer cells have high metabolic rates that allow their fast proliferation. It is possible that depriving these cells from glucose, the fuel they grew on, may hamper their growth. Research has shown that animals with brain tumors that are placed on a ketogenic diet show a marked decrease in the rate of tumor growth, most likely due to the lack of glucose. There are even case reports of humans with brain tumors who have greatly improved due to the adoption of a ketogenic diet.

But besides the neurological effects of ketogenic diets, there are many other health benefits described for a ketone-based metabolism. Ketogenic diets can decrease both plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, decreasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases; the levels of blood triglycerides can also be diminished, LDL cholesterol can be reduced and HDL cholesterol can be increased, thereby also decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

It is arguable that evolution hasn’t prepared us for the amount of carbs we ingest. Maybe we would be better off running on ketone bodies.


Barañano, K. W., & Hartman, A. L. (2008). The ketogenic diet: Uses in epilepsy and other neurologic illnesses. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 10(6), 410–419. doi:10.1007/s11940-008-0043-8

Gano, L. B., Patel, M., & Rho, J. M. (2014). Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases. The Journal of Lipid Research, 55(11), 2211–2228. doi:10.1194/jlr.r048975
Gasior, M., Rogawski, M. A., & Hartman, A. L. (2006). Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. Behavioural Pharmacology, 17(5-6), 431–439. doi:10.1097/00008877-200609000-00009

Gibson, A. A., Seimon, R. V., Lee, C. M. Y., Ayre, J., Franklin, J., Markovic, T. P., … Sainsbury, A. (2014). Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews, 16(1), 64–76. doi:10.1111/obr.12230

Kinzig, K. P., Honors, M. A., & Hargrave, S. L. (2010). Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance are altered by maintenance on a Ketogenic diet. Endocrinology, 151(7), 3105–3114. doi:10.1210/en.2010-0175

Klein, P., Tyrlikova, I., & Mathews, G. C. (2014). Dietary treatment in adults with refractory epilepsy: A review. Neurology, 83(21), 1978–1985. doi:10.1212/wnl.0000000000001004

Seyfried, T. N., Marsh, J., Shelton, L. M., Huysentruyt, L. C., & Mukherjee, P. (2012). Is the restricted ketogenic diet a viable alternative to the standard of care for managing malignant brain cancer? Epilepsy Research, 100(3), 310–326. doi:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2011.06.017

Stafstrom, C. E., & Rho, J. M. (2012). The Ketogenic diet as a treatment paradigm for diverse neurological disorders. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 3. doi:10.3389/fphar.2012.00059

Wheless, J. W. (2008). History of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia, 49, 3–5. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01821.x

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Saturday, 23 July 2016

Touchy subject

Recent studies suggest that condom use is on the decline in South Africa - so how do women there get their partners to use condoms? via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

Friday, 22 July 2016

Alcohol linked to at least seven cancers – not just liver cancer

The more alcohol you drink, the higher your risk of cancers like breast and colon cancer. But research suggests that there is no "safe" level of consumption via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..

Menopause reversal restores periods and produces fertile eggs

Women who have already passed through the menopause may be able to have children following a blood treatment usually used to heal wounds via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..

How Does The Brain Organize Memories Across Time?

Research on the organization of our memory has long been a topic of fascination among neuroscientists given that this could lead to treatments for reversing cognitive impairments. Here, we review some recent findings on how memory is organized which show the importance of a coordinated “wave” of neuronal activity in spatial navigation, and the temporal nature underlying how linked memories are encoded.

To this end, the results described herein highlight the crucial and variable role of the hippocampus – the brain’s memory centre – in the formation and consolidation of our memories, and by extension our sense of identity.

Conducting the brain’s neuronal “orchestra”: spatial maps in our mind’s eye

For a mouse, how is a map of space updated and produced when it is navigating its environment? In a recent study, scientists report for the first time that the CA1 central hippocampal area in the mouse brain is responsible for this map – and that this occurs via neural wave input from brain regions nearby. To demonstrate this, the hippocampal area CA3 located near to CA1 was manipulated such that its input was turned off. Indeed, when the input was stopped, there was a significant jumbling of the updated maps.

In this study, mice were genetically engineered to express a toxin in CA3 that stopped the function of synaptic junctions connecting CA3 to other areas of the brain. This does not change neuronal activity but removes communication between synapses, and allowed the scientists to investigate what happens to the space map in CA1 when CA3 input was eliminated.

Next, the electric current from individual neurons and the total electric current from a larger group of neurons (termed local field potentials) were recorded while mice ran on a track. The scientists would then be able to measure each theta cycle, or the time over which the neural spatial map in the hippocampus was updated as determined by the activity of the mice.

Although the transgenic mice had no difficulty in performing a navigation task, and single neuron signals could accurately represent spatial information, the key finding was that there were clear errors in the organization of these neuronal signals at the global population level. A simple analogy to illustrate this would be that eliminating the input from CA3 to CA1 did not alter the neural “music” but instead removed the “conductor”.

This study is the first to shed light on the circuitry connecting ensembles of place cells (a type of hippocampal neuron involved in spatial navigation) and how they update themselves. More specifically, removing CA3 input would hinder the ability to predict spatial location. This highlights the critical importance of neurons activating in sequence to ensure that we can organize memories across time.

We see here that the neural “orchestra” needs the “conductor” in the form of CA3 input, and that individual neurons in the hippocampus are not enough to generate a functioning map of space. This emphasizes the interdependence of strategies that determine the coding of neurons. Notably, there was a marked reduction in neural oscillations that were typical of communication from CA3 to CA1. Given that such disruptions have been previously linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, future work into brain rhythm organization could hence improve understanding of how the brain’s circuitry is organized in such diseases.

Losing connections between related memories as we age – can this be reversed?

In another study, a group of scientists used a tiny microscope (dubbed the Miniscope) to view the brain through a miniature window and investigate how memories in the brain are linked over time. Although such connections are progressively weakened with age, these scientists were able to create a way allowing for separate memories to be reconnected in the middle-aged mouse brain. Importantly, this has vast potential for development into a treatment for patients with age-linked dementia.

The head-mounted Miniscope used in this study allowed scientists to visualize neurons firing in the brain as the mice were allowed to move freely. Three unique boxes were used for this study, and the first part of the study involved young mice. Here, each mouse was placed in all three for 10 minutes per session. Placement in the first and second boxes was separated by a week while that in the second and third boxes was separated only by five hours. Additionally, the mouse was given a shock in the third box.

After two days, each mouse was returned to all three boxes. Unsurprisingly, the mice froze with fear upon recognizing the characteristics of the third box. However, what was intriguing was that the mouse also froze when placed in the second box despite the fact that there had been no shock administered in this box earlier. This suggested that the memory of the shock was transferred from the third box to the experience in the second box that took place five hours before.

A similar experiment was subsequently carried out with middle-aged mice using two boxes, five hours apart, and whereby a shock was given in the second box. It was found that these older mice froze only in the second box where they were shocked, and not in the first box. In this regard, the Miniscope found that the two memories were not linked and instead had separately encoded neural circuits. More strikingly, this indicated that aging weakened the ability of neurons to be excited and encode a memory.

Perhaps the most exciting finding in this study was that these lost connections could in fact be rescued. In the following set of experiments, the scientists first excited neurons in a region of the hippocampus prior to placing the mice in the first box. The mice were then introduced to the first and second box, where a foot shock was administered after two days. Upon reintroduction to the first box, the mice froze as they linked the shock in the second box to the first, implying that enhanced neuronal excitability rescued the age-related deterioration in memory linking.

It is especially pertinent to note that memories do not occur in isolation in real life, given that past experiences affect how new memories are formed and influence our decision-making processes in the future. Hopefully, research in this field would one day help people with age-related cognitive decline in terms of improving their abilities to connect and retain memories.


Cai, D. J., Aharoni, D., Shuman, T., Shobe, J., Biane, J., Song, W., … Silva, A. J. (2016). A shared neural ensemble links distinct contextual memories encoded close in time. Nature, 534(7605), 115–118. doi:10.1038/nature17955

Feng, T., Silva, D., & Foster, D. J. (2015). Dissociation between the experience-dependent development of Hippocampal Theta sequences and single-trial phase Precession. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(12), 4890–4902. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.2614-14.2015

Middleton, S. J., & McHugh, T. J. (2016). Silencing CA3 disrupts temporal coding in the CA1 ensemble. Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.4311

Moser, E. I., Roudi, Y., Witter, M. P., Kentros, C., Bonhoeffer, T., & Moser, M.-B. (2014). Grid cells and cortical representation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 15(7), 466–481. doi:10.1038/nrn3766

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BMA calls for ‘ghost patient’ cull to be scrapped

GPC passes motion of no confidence in Capita, the firm running the scheme

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Alcohol directly causes seven types of cancer

Public need to be made aware of the dangers of drinking

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Double hand transplant is UK first

Twelve-hour operation carried out by Leeds General Infirmary surgical team

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Give us UK wide opt-out system for organ donation, say doctors’ leaders
Liver transplant for paracetamol overdose rates vary widely across Europe
Hundreds of families overrule deceased’ wishes to donate organs
via OnMedica News Read More Here..

First ever audit reveals 5,700 new FGM cases across England

Women and girls from Somali account for one third of new reports

Related items from OnMedica

Government launches new measures to prevent FGM
Pregnancy key opportunity to identify FGM
New help to combat female genital mutilation
Abused children unable to access mental health services
New legal duty on doctors to report FGM in under 18s
via OnMedica News Read More Here..

Anger as government axes nurse and midwife bursaries

Midwives say the move threatens the future of maternity services

Related items from OnMedica

Plans to scrap student nurse bursary 'reckless'
One in three nurses to reach retirement age within 10 years
NHS frontline victim of ‘boom and bust’ approach to workforce
Workforce shortages threaten delivery of NHS Five Year Forward View
Sign up with your local trust’s in-house bank, nurses urged
via OnMedica News Read More Here..

Double hand transplant: UK's first operation 'tremendous' success

The UK's first double hand transplant operation has taken place at Leeds General Infirmary and the patient says his new hands look "tremendous". via BBC News - Health Read More Here..

Alcohol linked to at least seven cancers – not just liver cancer

The more alcohol you drink, the higher your risk of cancers like breast and colon cancer. But research suggests that there is no "safe" level of consumption via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..

Double hand transplant carried out in the UK for first time

Chris King has become the first person in the UK to receive two hand transplants, in an operation that took eight surgeons 12 hours to complete via New Scientist - Health Read More Here..